Applications may query this capability by checking the asyncEngineCount device property see Device Enumeration , which is greater than zero for devices that support it. If host memory is involved in the copy, it must be page-locked. Intra-device copies are initiated using the standard memory copy functions with destination and source addresses residing on the same device. Applications may query this capability by checking the asyncEngineCount device property see Device Enumeration , which is equal to 2 for devices that support it.
In order to be overlapped, any host memory involved in the transfers must be page-locked. Applications manage the concurrent operations described above through streams. A stream is a sequence of commands possibly issued by different host threads that execute in order. Different streams, on the other hand, may execute their commands out of order with respect to one another or concurrently; this behavior is not guaranteed and should therefore not be relied upon for correctness e. The following code sample creates two streams and allocates an array hostPtr of float in page-locked memory.
Each of these streams is defined by the following code sample as a sequence of one memory copy from host to device, one kernel launch, and one memory copy from device to host:. Each stream copies its portion of input array hostPtr to array inputDevPtr in device memory, processes inputDevPtr on the device by calling MyKernel , and copies the result outputDevPtr back to the same portion of hostPtr. Overlapping Behavior describes how the streams overlap in this example depending on the capability of the device. Note that hostPtr must point to page-locked host memory for any overlap to occur.
Streams are released by calling cudaStreamDestroy. In case the device is still doing work in the stream when cudaStreamDestroy is called, the function will return immediately and the resources associated with the stream will be released automatically once the device has completed all work in the stream. They are therefore executed in order. For code that is compiled using the --default-stream legacy compilation flag, the default stream is a special stream called the NULL stream and each device has a single NULL stream used for all host threads.
For code that is compiled without specifying a --default-stream compilation flag, --default-stream legacy is assumed as the default. It can be used to synchronize the host with a specific stream, allowing other streams to continue executing on the device. The stream can be 0, in which case all the commands added to any stream after the call to cudaStreamWaitEvent wait on the event. To avoid unnecessary slowdowns, all these synchronization functions are usually best used for timing purposes or to isolate a launch or memory copy that is failing.
Two commands from different streams cannot run concurrently if any one of the following operations is issued in-between them by the host thread:. For devices that support concurrent kernel execution and are of compute capability 3. Operations that require a dependency check include any other commands within the same stream as the launch being checked and any call to cudaStreamQuery on that stream.
Therefore, applications should follow these guidelines to improve their potential for concurrent kernel execution:. For example, on devices that do not support concurrent data transfers, the two streams of the code sample of Creation and Destruction do not overlap at all because the memory copy from host to device is issued to stream after the memory copy from device to host is issued to stream, so it can only start once the memory copy from device to host issued to stream has completed.
If the code is rewritten the following way and assuming the device supports overlap of data transfer and kernel execution. On devices that do support concurrent data transfers, the two streams of the code sample of Creation and Destruction do overlap: The memory copy from host to device issued to stream overlaps with the memory copy from device to host issued to stream and even with the kernel launch issued to stream assuming the device supports overlap of data transfer and kernel execution.
However, for devices of compute capability 3. If the code is rewritten as above, the kernel executions overlap assuming the device supports concurrent kernel execution since the second kernel launch is issued to stream before the memory copy from device to host is issued to stream. In that case however, the memory copy from device to host issued to stream only overlaps with the last thread blocks of the kernel launch issued to stream as per Implicit Synchronization , which can represent only a small portion of the total execution time of the kernel.
The runtime provides a way to insert a callback at any point into a stream via cudaStreamAddCallback. A callback is a function that is executed on the host once all commands issued to the stream before the callback have completed. Callbacks in stream 0 are executed once all preceding tasks and commands issued in all streams before the callback have completed. The following code sample adds the callback function MyCallback to each of two streams after issuing a host-to-device memory copy, a kernel launch and a device-to-host memory copy into each stream. The callback will begin execution on the host after each of the device-to-host memory copies completes.
The commands that are issued in a stream or all commands issued to any stream if the callback is issued to stream 0 after a callback do not start executing before the callback has completed. The last parameter of cudaStreamAddCallback is reserved for future use. A callback must not make CUDA API calls directly or indirectly , as it might end up waiting on itself if it makes such a call leading to a deadlock.
The relative priorities of streams can be specified at creation using cudaStreamCreateWithPriority. The range of allowable priorities, ordered as [highest priority, lowest priority] can be obtained using the cudaDeviceGetStreamPriorityRange function. At runtime, as blocks in low-priority streams finish, waiting blocks in higher-priority streams are scheduled in their place.
The following code sample obtains the allowable range of priorities for the current device, and creates streams with the highest and lowest available priorities. Graphs present a new model for work submission in CUDA. A graph is a series of operations, such as kernel launches, connected by dependencies, which is defined separately from its execution. This allows a graph to be defined once and then launched repeatedly.
Separating out the definition of a graph from its execution enables a number of optimizations: first, CPU launch costs are reduced compared to streams, because much of the setup is done in advance; second, presenting the whole workflow to CUDA enables optimizations which might not be possible with the piecewise work submission mechanism of streams. To see the optimizations possible with graphs, consider what happens in a stream: when you place a kernel into a stream, the host driver performs a sequence of operations in preparation for the execution of the kernel on the GPU.
These operations, necessary for setting up and launching the kernel, are an overhead cost which must be paid for each kernel that is issued. For a GPU kernel with a short execution time, this overhead cost can be a significant fraction of the overall end-to-end execution time.
An operation forms a node in a graph. The dependencies between the operations are the edges. These dependencies constrain the execution sequence of the operations. An operation may be scheduled at any time once the nodes on which it depends are complete. Scheduling is left up to the CUDA system.
Graphs can be created via two mechanisms: explicit API and stream capture. The following is an example of creating and executing the below graph. Stream capture provides a mechanism to create a graph from existing stream-based APIs. A section of code which launches work into streams, including existing code, can be bracketed with calls to cudaStreamBeginCapture and cudaStreamEndCapture. See below. A call to cudaStreamBeginCapture places a stream in capture mode.
When a stream is being captured, work launched into the stream is not enqueued for execution. It is instead appended to an internal graph that is progressively being built up. This graph is then returned by calling cudaStreamEndCapture , which also ends capture mode for the stream. A graph which is actively being constructed by stream capture is referred to as a capture graph.
Note that it can be used on cudaStreamPerThread. If a program is using the legacy stream, it may be possible to redefine stream 0 to be the per-thread stream with no functional change. See Default Stream. Whether a stream is being captured can be queried with cudaStreamIsCapturing.
Stream capture can handle cross-stream dependencies expressed with cudaEventRecord and cudaStreamWaitEvent , provided the event being waited upon was recorded into the same capture graph. When an event is recorded in a stream that is in capture mode, it results in a captured event. A captured event represents a set of nodes in a capture graph.
When a captured event is waited on by a stream, it places the stream in capture mode if it is not already, and the next item in the stream will have additional dependencies on the nodes in the captured event. The two streams are then being captured to the same capture graph. When cross-stream dependencies are present in stream capture, cudaStreamEndCapture must still be called in the same stream where cudaStreamBeginCapture was called; this is the origin stream.
Any other streams which are being captured to the same capture graph, due to event-based dependencies, must also be joined back to the origin stream. This is illustrated below. All streams being captured to the same capture graph are taken out of capture mode upon cudaStreamEndCapture. Failure to rejoin to the origin stream will result in failure of the overall capture operation. It is invalid to synchronize or query the execution status of a stream which is being captured or a captured event, because they do not represent items scheduled for execution.
It is also invalid to query the execution status of or synchronize a broader handle which encompasses an active stream capture, such as a device or context handle when any associated stream is in capture mode. When any stream in the same context is being captured, and it was not created with cudaStreamNonBlocking , any attempted use of the legacy stream is invalid. This is because the legacy stream handle at all times encompasses these other streams; enqueueing to the legacy stream would create a dependency on the streams being captured, and querying it or synchronizing it would query or synchronize the streams being captured.
It is therefore also invalid to call synchronous APIs in this case. Synchronous APIs, such as cudaMemcpy , enqueue work to the legacy stream and synchronize it before returning. It is invalid to merge two separate capture graphs by waiting on a captured event from a stream which is being captured and is associated with a different capture graph than the event. It is invalid to wait on a non-captured event from a stream which is being captured.
A small number of APIs that enqueue asynchronous operations into streams are not currently supported in graphs and will return an error if called with a stream which is being captured, such as cudaStreamAttachMemAsync. When an invalid operation is attempted during stream capture, any associated capture graphs are invalidated. When a capture graph is invalidated, further use of any streams which are being captured or captured events associated with the graph is invalid and will return an error, until stream capture is ended with cudaStreamEndCapture.
This call will take the associated streams out of capture mode, but will also return an error value and a NULL graph. Graph execution is done in streams for ordering with other asynchronous work. However, the stream is for ordering only; it does not constrain the internal parallelism of the graph, nor does it affect where graph nodes execute.
See Graph API. The runtime also provides a way to closely monitor the device's progress, as well as perform accurate timing, by letting the application asynchronously record events at any point in the program, and query when these events are completed. An event has completed when all tasks - or optionally, all commands in a given stream - preceding the event have completed.
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Events in stream zero are completed after all preceding tasks and commands in all streams are completed. The events created in Creation and Destruction can be used to time the code sample of Creation and Destruction the following way:. When a synchronous function is called, control is not returned to the host thread before the device has completed the requested task. Whether the host thread will then yield, block, or spin can be specified by calling cudaSetDeviceFlags with some specific flags see reference manual for details before any other CUDA call is performed by the host thread. A host system can have multiple devices.
The following code sample shows how to enumerate these devices, query their properties, and determine the number of CUDA-enabled devices. A host thread can set the device it operates on at any time by calling cudaSetDevice. Device memory allocations and kernel launches are made on the currently set device; streams and events are created in association with the currently set device.
If no call to cudaSetDevice is made, the current device is device 0. The following code sample illustrates how setting the current device affects memory allocation and kernel execution. A kernel launch will fail if it is issued to a stream that is not associated to the current device as illustrated in the following code sample. A memory copy will succeed even if it is issued to a stream that is not associated to the current device. Each device has its own default stream see Default Stream , so commands issued to the default stream of a device may execute out of order or concurrently with respect to commands issued to the default stream of any other device.
When the application is run as a bit process, devices of compute capability 2. This peer-to-peer memory access feature is supported between two devices if cudaDeviceCanAccessPeer returns true for these two devices. Peer-to-peer memory access must be enabled between two devices by calling cudaDeviceEnablePeerAccess as illustrated in the following code sample. On non-NVSwitch enabled systems, each device can support a system-wide maximum of eight peer connections.
A unified address space is used for both devices see Unified Virtual Address Space , so the same pointer can be used to address memory from both devices as shown in the code sample below. When a unified address space is used for both devices see Unified Virtual Address Space , this is done using the regular memory copy functions mentioned in Device Memory.
A copy in the implicit NULL stream between the memories of two different devices:. Consistent with the normal behavior of streams, an asynchronous copy between the memories of two devices may overlap with copies or kernels in another stream. Note that if peer-to-peer access is enabled between two devices via cudaDeviceEnablePeerAccess as described in Peer-to-Peer Memory Access , peer-to-peer memory copy between these two devices no longer needs to be staged through the host and is therefore faster.
When the application is run as a bit process, a single address space is used for the host and all the devices of compute capability 2. All host memory allocations made via CUDA API calls and all device memory allocations on supported devices are within this virtual address range. As a consequence:. Applications may query if the unified address space is used for a particular device by checking that the unifiedAddressing device property see Device Enumeration is equal to 1. Any device memory pointer or event handle created by a host thread can be directly referenced by any other thread within the same process.
It is not valid outside this process however, and therefore cannot be directly referenced by threads belonging to a different process. To share device memory pointers and events across processes, an application must use the Inter Process Communication API, which is described in detail in the reference manual. Event handles can be shared using similar entry points.
An example of using the IPC API is where a single master process generates a batch of input data, making the data available to multiple slave processes without requiring regeneration or copying. All runtime functions return an error code, but for an asynchronous function see Asynchronous Concurrent Execution , this error code cannot possibly report any of the asynchronous errors that could occur on the device since the function returns before the device has completed the task; the error code only reports errors that occur on the host prior to executing the task, typically related to parameter validation; if an asynchronous error occurs, it will be reported by some subsequent unrelated runtime function call.
The only way to check for asynchronous errors just after some asynchronous function call is therefore to synchronize just after the call by calling cudaDeviceSynchronize or by using any other synchronization mechanisms described in Asynchronous Concurrent Execution and checking the error code returned by cudaDeviceSynchronize.
The runtime maintains an error variable for each host thread that is initialized to cudaSuccess and is overwritten by the error code every time an error occurs be it a parameter validation error or an asynchronous error. Kernel launches do not return any error code, so cudaPeekAtLastError or cudaGetLastError must be called just after the kernel launch to retrieve any pre-launch errors. To ensure that any error returned by cudaPeekAtLastError or cudaGetLastError does not originate from calls prior to the kernel launch, one has to make sure that the runtime error variable is set to cudaSuccess just before the kernel launch, for example, by calling cudaGetLastError just before the kernel launch.
Kernel launches are asynchronous, so to check for asynchronous errors, the application must synchronize in-between the kernel launch and the call to cudaPeekAtLastError or cudaGetLastError. On devices of compute capability 2. When the call stack overflows, the kernel call fails with a stack overflow error if the application is run via a CUDA debugger cuda-gdb, Nsight or an unspecified launch error, otherwise.
Reading data from texture or surface memory instead of global memory can have several performance benefits as described in Device Memory Accesses. Texture memory is read from kernels using the device functions described in Texture Functions. The process of reading a texture calling one of these functions is called a texture fetch. Each texture fetch specifies a parameter called a texture object for the texture object API or a texture reference for the texture reference API. Textures can also be layered as described in Layered Textures. Cubemap Textures and Cubemap Layered Textures describe a special type of texture, the cubemap texture.
Texture Gather describes a special texture fetch, texture gather. A texture object is created using cudaCreateTextureObject from a resource description of type struct cudaResourceDesc , which specifies the texture, and from a texture description defined as such:. The following code sample applies some simple transformation kernel to a texture. Some of the attributes of a texture reference are immutable and must be known at compile time; they are specified when declaring the texture reference.
A texture reference is declared at file scope as a variable of type texture :. A texture reference can only be declared as a static global variable and cannot be passed as an argument to a function. The other attributes of a texture reference are mutable and can be changed at runtime through the host runtime. The texture type is defined in the high-level API as a structure publicly derived from the textureReference type defined in the low-level API as such:. Once a texture reference has been unbound, it can be safely rebound to another array, even if kernels that use the previously bound texture have not completed.
It is recommended to allocate two-dimensional textures in linear memory using cudaMallocPitch and use the pitch returned by cudaMallocPitch as input parameter to cudaBindTexture2D. The following code samples bind a 2D texture reference to linear memory pointed to by devPtr :.
The format specified when binding a texture to a texture reference must match the parameters specified when declaring the texture reference; otherwise, the results of texture fetches are undefined. There is a limit to the number of textures that can be bound to a kernel as specified in Table These functions are only supported in device code. Equivalent functions for the host code can be found in the OpenEXR library, for example.
A one-dimensional or two-dimensional layered texture also known as texture array in Direct3D and array texture in OpenGL is a texture made up of a sequence of layers, all of which are regular textures of same dimensionality, size, and data type. A one-dimensional layered texture is addressed using an integer index and a floating-point texture coordinate; the index denotes a layer within the sequence and the coordinate addresses a texel within that layer. A two-dimensional layered texture is addressed using an integer index and two floating-point texture coordinates; the index denotes a layer within the sequence and the coordinates address a texel within that layer.
Texture filtering see Texture Fetching is done only within a layer, not across layers. A cubemap texture is a special type of two-dimensional layered texture that has six layers representing the faces of a cube:. Cubemap textures are fetched using the device function described in texCubemap and texCubemap. A cubemap layered texture is a layered texture whose layers are cubemaps of same dimension. A cubemap layered texture is addressed using an integer index and three floating-point texture coordinates; the index denotes a cubemap within the sequence and the coordinates address a texel within that cubemap.
Cubemap layered textures are fetched using the device function described in texCubemapLayered and texCubemapLayered. Cubemap layered textures are only supported on devices of compute capability 2. Texture gather is a special texture fetch that is available for two-dimensional textures only. It is performed by the tex2Dgather function, which has the same parameters as tex2D , plus an additional comp parameter equal to 0, 1, 2, or 3 see tex2Dgather and tex2Dgather.
It returns four bit numbers that correspond to the value of the component comp of each of the four texels that would have been used for bilinear filtering during a regular texture fetch. For example, if these texels are of values , 20, 31, , , 25, 29, , , 16, 37, , , 22, 30, , and comp is 2, tex2Dgather returns 31, 29, 37, Note that texture coordinates are computed with only 8 bits of fractional precision.
For example, with an x texture coordinate of 2. Since 0. A tex2Dgather in this case would therefore return indices 2 and 3 in x , instead of indices 1 and 2. Texture gather is only supported for CUDA arrays created with the cudaArrayTextureGather flag and of width and height less than the maximum specified in Table 14 for texture gather, which is smaller than for regular texture fetch.
Texture gather is only supported on devices of compute capability 2. For devices of compute capability 2. Table 14 lists the maximum surface width, height, and depth depending on the compute capability of the device. A surface object is created using cudaCreateSurfaceObject from a resource description of type struct cudaResourceDesc. A surface reference is declared at file scope as a variable of type surface:. A surface reference can only be declared as a static global variable and cannot be passed as an argument to a function.
A CUDA array must be read and written using surface functions of matching dimensionality and type and via a surface reference of matching dimensionality; otherwise, the results of reading and writing the CUDA array are undefined. Unlike texture memory, surface memory uses byte addressing.
This means that the x-coordinate used to access a texture element via texture functions needs to be multiplied by the byte size of the element to access the same element via a surface function. Cubemap surfaces are accessed using surfCubemapread and surfCubemapwrite surfCubemapread and surfCubemapwrite as a two-dimensional layered surface, i. Faces are ordered as indicated in Table 1. Cubemap layered surfaces are accessed using surfCubemapLayeredread and surfCubemapLayeredwrite surfCubemapLayeredread and surfCubemapLayeredwrite as a two-dimensional layered surface, i.
They are one dimensional, two dimensional, or three-dimensional and composed of elements, each of which has 1, 2 or 4 components that may be signed or unsigned 8-, , or bit integers, bit floats, or bit floats. CUDA arrays are only accessible by kernels through texture fetching as described in Texture Memory or surface reading and writing as described in Surface Memory. The texture and surface memory is cached see Device Memory Accesses and within the same kernel call, the cache is not kept coherent with respect to global memory writes and surface memory writes, so any texture fetch or surface read to an address that has been written to via a global write or a surface write in the same kernel call returns undefined data.
In other words, a thread can safely read some texture or surface memory location only if this memory location has been updated by a previous kernel call or memory copy, but not if it has been previously updated by the same thread or another thread from the same kernel call. Registering a resource is potentially high-overhead and therefore typically called only once per resource. Each CUDA context which intends to use the resource is required to register it separately. In CUDA, it appears as a device pointer and can therefore be read and written by kernels or via cudaMemcpy calls.
Kernels can read from the array by binding it to a texture or surface reference. They can also write to it via the surface write functions if the resource has been registered with the cudaGraphicsRegisterFlagsSurfaceLoadStore flag. The array can also be read and written via cudaMemcpy2D calls. The application needs to register the texture for interop before requesting an image or texture handle.
The following code sample uses a kernel to dynamically modify a 2D width x height grid of vertices stored in a vertex buffer object:. The following code sample uses a kernel to dynamically modify a 2D width x height grid of vertices stored in a vertex buffer object. There are however special considerations as described below when the system is in SLI mode.
Because of this, allocations may fail earlier than otherwise expected. While this is not a strict requirement, it avoids unnecessary data transfers between devices. Therefore on SLI configurations when data for different frames is computed on different CUDA devices it is necessary to register the resources for each separatly. There are two version numbers that developers should care about when developing a CUDA application: The compute capability that describes the general specifications and features of the compute device see Compute Capability and the version of the CUDA driver API that describes the features supported by the driver API and runtime.
It allows developers to check whether their application requires a newer device driver than the one currently installed. This is important, because the driver API is backward compatible , meaning that applications, plug-ins, and libraries including the C runtime compiled against a particular version of the driver API will continue to work on subsequent device driver releases as illustrated in Figure The driver API is not forward compatible , which means that applications, plug-ins, and libraries including the C runtime compiled against a particular version of the driver API will not work on previous versions of the device driver.
It is important to note that there are limitations on the mixing and matching of versions that is supported:. On Tesla solutions running Windows Server and later or Linux, one can set any device in a system in one of the three following modes using NVIDIA's System Management Interface nvidia-smi , which is a tool distributed as part of the driver:. This means, in particular, that a host thread using the runtime API without explicitly calling cudaSetDevice might be associated with a device other than device 0 if device 0 turns out to be in prohibited mode or in exclusive-process mode and used by another process.
Note also that, for devices featuring the Pascal architecture onwards compute capability with major revision number 6 and higher , there exists support for Compute Preemption. This allows compute tasks to be preempted at instruction-level granularity, rather than thread block granularity as in prior Maxwell and Kepler GPU architecture, with the benefit that applications with long-running kernels can be prevented from either monopolizing the system or timing out.
However, there will be context switch overheads associated with Compute Preemption, which is automatically enabled on those devices for which support exists. The individual attribute query function cudaDeviceGetAttribute with the attribute cudaDevAttrComputePreemptionSupported can be used to determine if the device in use supports Compute Preemption. Users wishing to avoid context switch overheads associated with different processes can ensure that only one process is active on the GPU by selecting exclusive-process mode.
Applications may query the compute mode of a device by checking the computeMode device property see Device Enumeration. GPUs that have a display output dedicate some DRAM memory to the so-called primary surface , which is used to refresh the display device whose output is viewed by the user.
When users initiate a mode switch of the display by changing the resolution or bit depth of the display using NVIDIA control panel or the Display control panel on Windows , the amount of memory needed for the primary surface changes. For example, if the user changes the display resolution from xxbit to xxbit, the system must dedicate 7. Full-screen graphics applications running with anti-aliasing enabled may require much more display memory for the primary surface.
If a mode switch increases the amount of memory needed for the primary surface, the system may have to cannibalize memory allocations dedicated to CUDA applications. Therefore, a mode switch results in any call to the CUDA runtime to fail and return an invalid context error. However, the TCC mode removes support for any graphics functionality. When a CUDA program on the host CPU invokes a kernel grid, the blocks of the grid are enumerated and distributed to multiprocessors with available execution capacity. The threads of a thread block execute concurrently on one multiprocessor, and multiple thread blocks can execute concurrently on one multiprocessor.
As thread blocks terminate, new blocks are launched on the vacated multiprocessors. A multiprocessor is designed to execute hundreds of threads concurrently.
The instructions are pipelined to leverage instruction-level parallelism within a single thread, as well as thread-level parallelism extensively through simultaneous hardware multithreading as detailed in Hardware Multithreading. Unlike CPU cores they are issued in order however and there is no branch prediction and no speculative execution. SIMT Architecture and Hardware Multithreading describe the architecture features of the streaming multiprocessor that are common to all devices.
Compute Capability 3. The multiprocessor creates, manages, schedules, and executes threads in groups of 32 parallel threads called warps. Individual threads composing a warp start together at the same program address, but they have their own instruction address counter and register state and are therefore free to branch and execute independently. The term warp originates from weaving, the first parallel thread technology. A half-warp is either the first or second half of a warp. A quarter-warp is either the first, second, third, or fourth quarter of a warp.
When a multiprocessor is given one or more thread blocks to execute, it partitions them into warps and each warp gets scheduled by a warp scheduler for execution. The way a block is partitioned into warps is always the same; each warp contains threads of consecutive, increasing thread IDs with the first warp containing thread 0. Thread Hierarchy describes how thread IDs relate to thread indices in the block. A warp executes one common instruction at a time, so full efficiency is realized when all 32 threads of a warp agree on their execution path.
If threads of a warp diverge via a data-dependent conditional branch, the warp executes each branch path taken, disabling threads that are not on that path. Branch divergence occurs only within a warp; different warps execute independently regardless of whether they are executing common or disjoint code paths. In contrast with SIMD vector machines, SIMT enables programmers to write thread-level parallel code for independent, scalar threads, as well as data-parallel code for coordinated threads.
For the purposes of correctness, the programmer can essentially ignore the SIMT behavior; however, substantial performance improvements can be realized by taking care that the code seldom requires threads in a warp to diverge. In practice, this is analogous to the role of cache lines in traditional code: Cache line size can be safely ignored when designing for correctness but must be considered in the code structure when designing for peak performance.
Vector architectures, on the other hand, require the software to coalesce loads into vectors and manage divergence manually. Prior to Volta, warps used a single program counter shared amongst all 32 threads in the warp together with an active mask specifying the active threads of the warp. As a result, threads from the same warp in divergent regions or different states of execution cannot signal each other or exchange data, and algorithms requiring fine-grained sharing of data guarded by locks or mutexes can easily lead to deadlock, depending on which warp the contending threads come from.
Starting with the Volta architecture, Independent Thread Scheduling allows full concurrency between threads, regardless of warp. With Independent Thread Scheduling, the GPU maintains execution state per thread, including a program counter and call stack, and can yield execution at a per-thread granularity, either to make better use of execution resources or to allow one thread to wait for data to be produced by another. A schedule optimizer determines how to group active threads from the same warp together into SIMT units. Independent Thread Scheduling can lead to a rather different set of threads participating in the executed code than intended if the developer made assumptions about warp-synchronicity 1 of previous hardware architectures.
In particular, any warp-synchronous code such as synchronization-free, intra-warp reductions should be revisited to ensure compatibility with Volta and beyond. See Compute Capability 7. The threads of a warp that are participating in the current instruction are called the active threads, whereas threads not on the current instruction are inactive disabled. Threads can be inactive for a variety of reasons including having exited earlier than other threads of their warp, having taken a different branch path than the branch path currently executed by the warp, or being the last threads of a block whose number of threads is not a multiple of the warp size.
If a non-atomic instruction executed by a warp writes to the same location in global or shared memory for more than one of the threads of the warp, the number of serialized writes that occur to that location varies depending on the compute capability of the device see Compute Capability 3. The execution context program counters, registers, etc.
Therefore, switching from one execution context to another has no cost, and at every instruction issue time, a warp scheduler selects a warp that has threads ready to execute its next instruction the active threads of the warp and issues the instruction to those threads. In particular, each multiprocessor has a set of bit registers that are partitioned among the warps, and a parallel data cache or shared memory that is partitioned among the thread blocks. The number of blocks and warps that can reside and be processed together on the multiprocessor for a given kernel depends on the amount of registers and shared memory used by the kernel and the amount of registers and shared memory available on the multiprocessor.
There are also a maximum number of resident blocks and a maximum number of resident warps per multiprocessor. These limits as well the amount of registers and shared memory available on the multiprocessor are a function of the compute capability of the device and are given in Appendix Compute Capabilities. If there are not enough registers or shared memory available per multiprocessor to process at least one block, the kernel will fail to launch.
Which strategies will yield the best performance gain for a particular portion of an application depends on the performance limiters for that portion; optimizing instruction usage of a kernel that is mostly limited by memory accesses will not yield any significant performance gain, for example. Optimization efforts should therefore be constantly directed by measuring and monitoring the performance limiters, for example using the CUDA profiler.
Also, comparing the floating-point operation throughput or memory throughput - whichever makes more sense - of a particular kernel to the corresponding peak theoretical throughput of the device indicates how much room for improvement there is for the kernel. To maximize utilization the application should be structured in a way that it exposes as much parallelism as possible and efficiently maps this parallelism to the various components of the system to keep them busy most of the time.
At a high level, the application should maximize parallel execution between the host, the devices, and the bus connecting the host to the devices, by using asynchronous functions calls and streams as described in Asynchronous Concurrent Execution. It should assign to each processor the type of work it does best: serial workloads to the host; parallel workloads to the devices. The second case is much less optimal since it adds the overhead of extra kernel invocations and global memory traffic.
Its occurrence should therefore be minimized by mapping the algorithm to the CUDA programming model in such a way that the computations that require inter-thread communication are performed within a single thread block as much as possible. At a lower level, the application should maximize parallel execution between the multiprocessors of a device. Multiple kernels can execute concurrently on a device, so maximum utilization can also be achieved by using streams to enable enough kernels to execute concurrently as described in Asynchronous Concurrent Execution.
At an even lower level, the application should maximize parallel execution between the various functional units within a multiprocessor. As described in Hardware Multithreading , a GPU multiprocessor relies on thread-level parallelism to maximize utilization of its functional units. Utilization is therefore directly linked to the number of resident warps. At every instruction issue time, a warp scheduler selects a warp that is ready to execute its next instruction, if any, and issues the instruction to the active threads of the warp.
The number of clock cycles it takes for a warp to be ready to execute its next instruction is called the latency , and full utilization is achieved when all warp schedulers always have some instruction to issue for some warp at every clock cycle during that latency period, or in other words, when latency is completely "hidden". The number of instructions required to hide a latency of L clock cycles depends on the respective throughputs of these instructions see Arithmetic Instructions for the throughputs of various arithmetic instructions.
Assuming maximum throughput for all instructions, it is: 8L for devices of compute capability 3. For devices of compute capability 3. The most common reason a warp is not ready to execute its next instruction is that the instruction's input operands are not available yet. If all input operands are registers, latency is caused by register dependencies, i. In the case of a back-to-back register dependency i. Execution time varies depending on the instruction, but it is typically about 11 clock cycles for devices of compute capability 3.
This is also assuming enough instruction-level parallelism so that schedulers are always able to issue pairs of instructions for each warp. If some input operand resides in off-chip memory, the latency is much higher: to clock cycles for devices of compute capability 3. The number of warps required to keep the warp schedulers busy during such high latency periods depends on the kernel code and its degree of instruction-level parallelism.
In general, more warps are required if the ratio of the number of instructions with no off-chip memory operands i. For example, assume this ratio is 30, also assume the latencies are cycles on devices of compute capability 3. Then about 40 warps are required for devices of compute capability 3. Another reason a warp is not ready to execute its next instruction is that it is waiting at some memory fence Memory Fence Functions or synchronization point Memory Fence Functions.
A synchronization point can force the multiprocessor to idle as more and more warps wait for other warps in the same block to complete execution of instructions prior to the synchronization point. Having multiple resident blocks per multiprocessor can help reduce idling in this case, as warps from different blocks do not need to wait for each other at synchronization points. The number of blocks and warps residing on each multiprocessor for a given kernel call depends on the execution configuration of the call Execution Configuration , the memory resources of the multiprocessor, and the resource requirements of the kernel as described in Hardware Multithreading.
The total amount of shared memory required for a block is equal to the sum of the amount of statically allocated shared memory and the amount of dynamically allocated shared memory. The number of registers used by a kernel can have a significant impact on the number of resident warps. For example, for devices of compute capability 6. But as soon as the kernel uses one more register, only one block i.
Therefore, the compiler attempts to minimize register usage while keeping register spilling see Device Memory Accesses and the number of instructions to a minimum. Register usage can be controlled using the maxrregcount compiler option or launch bounds as described in Launch Bounds. Each double variable and each long long variable uses two registers. The effect of execution configuration on performance for a given kernel call generally depends on the kernel code.
Experimentation is therefore recommended. Applications can also parameterize execution configurations based on register file size and shared memory size, which depends on the compute capability of the device, as well as on the number of multiprocessors and memory bandwidth of the device, all of which can be queried using the runtime see reference manual. The number of threads per block should be chosen as a multiple of the warp size to avoid wasting computing resources with under-populated warps as much as possible.
Several API functions exist to assist programmers in choosing thread block size based on register and shared memory requirements. The following code sample calculates the occupancy of MyKernel. It then reports the occupancy level with the ratio between concurrent warps versus maximum warps per multiprocessor.
The following code sample configures an occupancy-based kernel launch of MyKernel according to the user input. A spreadsheet version of the occupancy calculator is also provided. The spreadsheet version is particularly useful as a learning tool that visualizes the impact of changes to the parameters that affect occupancy block size, registers per thread, and shared memory per thread. The first step in maximizing overall memory throughput for the application is to minimize data transfers with low bandwidth.
That means minimizing data transfers between the host and the device, as detailed in Data Transfer between Host and Device , since these have much lower bandwidth than data transfers between global memory and the device. That also means minimizing data transfers between global memory and the device by maximizing use of on-chip memory: shared memory and caches i. Shared memory is equivalent to a user-managed cache: The application explicitly allocates and accesses it. As illustrated in CUDA C Runtime , a typical programming pattern is to stage data coming from device memory into shared memory; in other words, to have each thread of a block:.
For some applications e. As mentioned in Compute Capability 3. The throughput of memory accesses by a kernel can vary by an order of magnitude depending on access pattern for each type of memory. The next step in maximizing memory throughput is therefore to organize memory accesses as optimally as possible based on the optimal memory access patterns described in Device Memory Accesses.
This optimization is especially important for global memory accesses as global memory bandwidth is low, so non-optimal global memory accesses have a higher impact on performance. Applications should strive to minimize data transfer between the host and the device. One way to accomplish this is to move more code from the host to the device, even if that means running kernels with low parallelism computations. Intermediate data structures may be created in device memory, operated on by the device, and destroyed without ever being mapped by the host or copied to host memory.
Also, because of the overhead associated with each transfer, batching many small transfers into a single large transfer always performs better than making each transfer separately. On systems with a front-side bus, higher performance for data transfers between host and device is achieved by using page-locked host memory as described in Page-Locked Host Memory.
In addition, when using mapped page-locked memory Mapped Memory , there is no need to allocate any device memory and explicitly copy data between device and host memory. Data transfers are implicitly performed each time the kernel accesses the mapped memory. For maximum performance, these memory accesses must be coalesced as with accesses to global memory see Device Memory Accesses. Assuming that they are and that the mapped memory is read or written only once, using mapped page-locked memory instead of explicit copies between device and host memory can be a win for performance.
On integrated systems where device memory and host memory are physically the same, any copy between host and device memory is superfluous and mapped page-locked memory should be used instead. Applications may query a device is integrated by checking that the integrated device property see Device Enumeration is equal to 1. An instruction that accesses addressable memory i. How the distribution affects the instruction throughput this way is specific to each type of memory and described in the following sections.
For example, for global memory, as a general rule, the more scattered the addresses are, the more reduced the throughput is. Global memory resides in device memory and device memory is accessed via , , or byte memory transactions. These memory transactions must be naturally aligned: Only the , , or byte segments of device memory that are aligned to their size i.
When a warp executes an instruction that accesses global memory, it coalesces the memory accesses of the threads within the warp into one or more of these memory transactions depending on the size of the word accessed by each thread and the distribution of the memory addresses across the threads. In general, the more transactions are necessary, the more unused words are transferred in addition to the words accessed by the threads, reducing the instruction throughput accordingly. For example, if a byte memory transaction is generated for each thread's 4-byte access, throughput is divided by 8.
How many transactions are necessary and how much throughput is ultimately affected varies with the compute capability of the device. To maximize global memory throughput, it is therefore important to maximize coalescing by:. Global memory instructions support reading or writing words of size equal to 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 bytes. Any access via a variable or a pointer to data residing in global memory compiles to a single global memory instruction if and only if the size of the data type is 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 bytes and the data is naturally aligned i.
If this size and alignment requirement is not fulfilled, the access compiles to multiple instructions with interleaved access patterns that prevent these instructions from fully coalescing. It is therefore recommended to use types that meet this requirement for data that resides in global memory. The alignment requirement is automatically fulfilled for the built-in types of char, short, int, long, longlong, float, double like float2 or float4. Any address of a variable residing in global memory or returned by one of the memory allocation routines from the driver or runtime API is always aligned to at least bytes.
Reading non-naturally aligned 8-byte or byte words produces incorrect results off by a few words , so special care must be taken to maintain alignment of the starting address of any value or array of values of these types. A typical case where this might be easily overlooked is when using some custom global memory allocation scheme, whereby the allocations of multiple arrays with multiple calls to cudaMalloc or cuMemAlloc is replaced by the allocation of a single large block of memory partitioned into multiple arrays, in which case the starting address of each array is offset from the block's starting address.
For these accesses to be fully coalesced, both the width of the thread block and the width of the array must be a multiple of the warp size. In particular, this means that an array whose width is not a multiple of this size will be accessed much more efficiently if it is actually allocated with a width rounded up to the closest multiple of this size and its rows padded accordingly. The cudaMallocPitch and cuMemAllocPitch functions and associated memory copy functions described in the reference manual enable programmers to write non-hardware-dependent code to allocate arrays that conform to these constraints.
Local memory accesses only occur for some automatic variables as mentioned in Variable Memory Space Specifiers. Automatic variables that the compiler is likely to place in local memory are:. Inspection of the PTX assembly code obtained by compiling with the -ptx or -keep option will tell if a variable has been placed in local memory during the first compilation phases as it will be declared using the. Even if it has not, subsequent compilation phases might still decide otherwise though if they find it consumes too much register space for the targeted architecture: Inspection of the cubin object using cuobjdump will tell if this is the case.
Note that some mathematical functions have implementation paths that might access local memory. The local memory space resides in device memory, so local memory accesses have same high latency and low bandwidth as global memory accesses and are subject to the same requirements for memory coalescing as described in Device Memory Accesses. Local memory is however organized such that consecutive bit words are accessed by consecutive thread IDs. Accesses are therefore fully coalesced as long as all threads in a warp access the same relative address e. On some devices of compute capability 3.
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A mixture of soft acidic Raspberry and Blueberry, on a bed of Crusty pastry.
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